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Institute of Astronomy


Dewhirst Classification

1966, revised 1982, 1998, 2007, 2014

The Subject Classification

The subject classification used in the library is similar to, but not identical with, that used in Astronomy & Astrophysics Abstracts. To find what books the library has on a particular topic, first identify the general subject area (Main Groups Roman I - XVI) and then look within that group for the more precise subject number. At the end of many of the subject numbers notes in brackets refer you to other subject numbers that contain books on related topics.

The first group (A-Q) covers General works of reference, and Subject specific works of reference. The second groups of the astronomy classification, I to VI, are concerned with types of literature (conference proceedings, astronomical tables, etc.); with methods of research (instruments, photometry, etc.); and with broad areas of astronomy like dynamical astronomy and theoretical astrophysics.

These are followed by groups VII to XII, which cover knowledge about things in the Universe; the Sun, planets, stars . . . arranged in an obvious way.

Finally groups XIII to XVI cover non-astronomy: Physics; Mathematics and Computers.

Within many of the groups the earliest subject number is for more general books and the numbers that follow are for narrower topics. A general principle used in giving a book a subject number is to prefer things in the Universe to ways of studying them; e.g. for Solar Radio Astronomy look under Sun rather than Radio Astronomy, and for Extragalactic High Energy Astrophysics look under Galaxies rather than under general astrophysics.

Please note this scheme is not universally applied, even in the IoA Library, dissertations, observatory publications, rare-books and large-sized atlases all have their own (non-Dewhirst) shelf-marks.

List of main groups:

General Works of Reference Ref. A-E.

Works of Reference - Subject Specific. Ref. F-L.

Official Publications. Ref. M-Q.

General Literature and Historical. Nos. 1-11.

Astronomical Instruments and Techniques of Observation. Nos. 14-27.

Positional and Spherical Astronomy. Nos. 30-38.

Theoretical and Dynamical Astronomy. Nos. 40-45.

General and Theoretical Astrophysics. Nos. 48-59.

Astronomy outside the Visible Spectrum; Space Research. Nos. 61-68.

The Sun. Nos. 70-79.

The Earth. Nos. 85-90.

The Solar System, Planets and Satellites. Nos. 91-102.

Interplanetary Objects. Nos. 104-109.

Stars and the Galaxy. Nos. 110-126.

The Universe. Nos. 129-135.

Cosmology. Nos. 136-138

Physics and Physical Techniques. Nos. 140-149.

Mathematics. Nos. 150-159

Computers. Nos. 160-165

Library Classification


R/A. General Reference (non scientific) Whos Who Whitakers Almanac Street directories and town plans, etc. Atlases General encyclopaedic works [World atlases, see 85]

R/B. Language Dictionaries. English dictionaries, French-English, etc. Polyglot technical dictionaries. [But explanatory dictionaries of terms and encyclopaedias of astronomy, see G; of physics, see H, etc.]

R/C. Style Manuals. English style and usage. Writing of scientific papers. Proof correcting. Recommended symbols.

R/D. Bibliography. Literature surveys and abstracts. Book reviews and book lists. Library catalogues [Databases, online access, see 26]

R/E. Biographical Dictionaries


R/F. Directories. Astronomical Institutions etc. [Business directories, see A]

R/G. Dictionaries of astronomical terms, names, etc. Encyclopaedias of astronomy.

R/H.. Dictionaries of mathematical and physics terms. Encyclopaedias

R/I. Ephemerides, Almanacs, Handbooks,

R/J. Astronomical Tables. General compilations of astronomical and astrophysical data. General and miscellaneous tables for astronomy and navigation. [For tables on special topics, however, see under the relevant subjects; for example: Eclipses 78; Mathematical tables 159; Reduction of star places, precession, etc. 37; Refraction 88; Tables only of Sun, Moon and Planet places, Tabulae Motuum 38]

R/K. Physical and Chemical Constants: general collections. Mathematical tables. [For individual topics, see subject, e.g. nuclear cross sections, see 148] [Tables of astronomical data only, see I]

R/L. User Manuals


R/M. Cambridge University, official publications.

R/N. British, Commonwealth and Foreign Universities. Handbooks, Official Publications.

R/P. British Government, etc., Reports. White Papers, Blue books. Reports of government laboratories, etc. SERC, Royal Society, etc.

R/Q. Commonwealth and Foreign Government, etc., Reports. National Academy of Sciences, Washington. European Science Foundation, etc. Reports of Committees, enquiries [For annual reports, astronomical institutions, however, see 4, etc.]


1. International Organisations; Assemblies and Conferences. Reports of International Assemblies, I.A.U. etc. Conference and Symposia Proceedings, A.S.P. etc. Festschrift volumes dedicated to individuals. International Co-operation. [Proceedings relating to Carte du Ciel, see 112 (I)] [International Geophysical Years, etc., see 90] (Most conferences are classified according to the subject nature of the conference.)

2. Expeditions. Reports of general scientific and astronomical expeditions. [Eclipses, see 78; Transit of Venus, see 71; Arc of Meridian, see 35]

3. Astronomers and other Scientists Archives, Catalogues of MSS Biographies, obituaries, correspondence between Collected works. Manuscripts [Lists of astronomers, see 4]

4. Observatories, Institutions and Societies History and description. Observatory guides and telescope manuals. Collections of miscellaneous observations made at Observatories. Planetaria, Museums. Lists of Observatories and members of Societies Annual reports of institutions. [Telescope and dome design, see 16] [Catalogues of archives, see 3]

5. History of Astronomy General histories of astronomy (and other sciences including astronomy). Archaeoastronomy, Greek astronomy, etc. Reports on progress and problems of astronomy. [History of physics, mathematics and selected topics, e.g. telescopes, see under subject; astronomy as a tool in historical research, see 34, 38]

7. Astrobiology. SETI. Life. Extraterrestrials, Aliens. Evolution of life in the Universe.

8. General textbooks on astronomy. Introductory textbooks Popular works Amateur observing General discourses; collected essays on astronomy. Handbuch series and encyclopaedic volumes. [General books on astrophysics, see 48] [Constellations, amateurs guides to the sky, see 110]

11. Miscellanea. General and popular science. Life in the Universe [see also 7] Astronomy and Philosophy. The teaching of astronomy Philosophy of science, scientific method.


14. General texts on astronomical instruments and techniques. Adaptive optics. High resolution, speckle, multiple aperture technique. [Data handling, image processing, see 26]

16. Telescopes and Observatory Buildings, general texts*. Early astronomical instruments. Optical instruments at ground sites. Meridian instruments, refractors, reflectors. Telescope domes, design; site selection, include light pollution [Refraction, scintillation, see 88] * [Description of individual observatories, telescope manuals, see 4] [Space telescopes and instrumentation, see 24]

17. Auxiliary instruments and instruments for geodesy, navigation, etc. Astrolabes. Astrolabes a prisme. Circle dividing. Micrometers. Sextants and theodolites. Binoculars Globes

18. Astrophysical auxiliary apparatus. Spectrographs Spectroscopic methods. Colour filters, interferometry, Fabry-Perot. Fibre optic techniques.

19. Photometry and Radiation Detectors. Photometric techniques both photographic and photoelectric. Infrared detectors and arrays. Image converters, CCDs, etc. [Image processing, see 26] [Photometry of nebulae, see nebulae, etc.] [General electronics, see 149] [Gravity wave detectors, see 45] [Infrared astronomy, see 62] [Gamma ray astronomy, see 67]

20. Photography. Photography in astronomy. General photographic techniques. Physics of the photographic process. Practical measurement of plates. Automatic measuring machines. [Astrometry, see 31] [Image processing, see 26] [Photometry, see 19]

21. Apparatus for the Measurement of Time. Sundials. Clocks and chronometers. Frequency standards. Caesium clocks. [Calendar, see 34] [Rotation of the Earth and U.T., see 32]

23. Radio Telescopes and Instruments. Antenna design. Synthesis techniques. Ionospheric scattering, etc. [Results from radio astronomy, see 61] [General electronics, see 149]

24. Techniques of Space Research. Rockets, satellites and spacecraft design. Instrument design, telemetry. Space telescopes. XUV detectors, etc. [General space research and astronomical results, see 64] [X-ray astronomy, see 65]

26. Data Processing in Astronomy. Image processing. Databases. Data handling and analysis by computer. Data analysis.

27. Computers in Astronomy

28. Space programmes: space stations etc.


30. General texts on spherical astronomy. Spherical and practical astronomy. Elementary mathematical astronomy. Use of the globes, etc. Pre-Newtonian texts on positional astronomy, planetary theory, planet places, etc. [Spherical trigonometry only, see 150] [Collections of miscellaneous astronomical observations, etc., see 4] [Projections of sphere, map projections, see 35]

31. Practical astrometry. Hipparcos Mission. Construction of fundamental catalogues. System of astronomical constants. [For Coordinate systems, Reference Frame, etc., see also 32] [Catalogues of star positions, see 112] [Tables of precession, etc., see 37] [Automatic measuring machines, see 20]

32. Motion of the Earth. Precession, nutation and aberration. Variation of Latitude. Rotation of the Earth. Time systems, U.T. etc. Coriolis Force. [Clocks and instruments, see 21] [Earth-Moon system, dynamics, see 43] [Tables of precession, etc., see 37]

34. Calendar and chronology. Dating by ancient eclipses. [Tables only of Sun, Moon and Planet places, see 38]

35. Geodetic Astronomy and Navigation. Figure of Earth, Arc of Meridian. Gravimetry, length of seconds pendulum, etc. Map projections. Surface and air navigation. Determination of longitude; method of lunar distances.

37. Tables for Positional Astronomy. Precession. Reduction of star places. Besselian Quantities. Azimuth and altitude tables. [For other tables, see 9]

38. Tables of places of Sun, Moon and Planets. Observed places. Tables from Theory, Tabulae Motuum, etc.


40. General Texts on Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy. Principia and commentaries. Later and modern works. Planetary theory, solar system. Configuration of rotating masses. Mass of planets. [Stellar systems, see 44]

41. Determination of Orbits of Planets and Comets. Orbit calculation from observations. Perturbation theory. Orbits of artificial satellites and spacecraft. Stability. [Tables of planet positions, see 38] [Lunar theory, see 43] [Nutation, precession etc. of Earth, see 32]

43. Lunar Theory. Theory of the Moon's orbit. Dynamics of the Earth-Moon system. [Tables of lunar positions only, see 38]

44. Kinematics and Dynamics of Stellar Systems. Studies of the n-body problem. Stellar dynamics. Stability of binary stars and star clusters. Dynamics of The Galaxy and Galaxies (primarily theoretical). [Theory of the interstellar medium, gas dynamics, see 54]

45. Relativity and Gravitation. General relativity and gravitational theories. Unified field theory. Gravity waves; theory and experiment. Relativity in celestial mechanics. [Relativistic astrophysics, gravitational collapse, see 58] [Cosmology and Universe, see 136] [Gravitational lensing, see 134]


[For primarily observational studies with interpretation see later under individual objects: Sun, etc.]

48. General Textbooks on Astrophysics.

49. Basic Astrophysical Processes. Atomic and Molecular Processes in astrophysics Maser mechanisms Magnetic fields Opacity. [For purely physical treatments without astrophysical content, see Physics, 142-149] [For High Energy Astrophysics, Relativistic Astrophysics, gravitational collapse, pulsars, etc., see 58]

50. Hydrodynamics, Magnetohydrodynamics, Plasma

51. Radiative Transfer, Scattering [For purely physical treatments without astrophysical content, see Physics, 140-149] [For High Energy Astrophysics, Relativistic Astrophysics, gravitational collapse, pulsars, etc., see 58]

52. Internal constitution of Sun and stars. (Nuclear astrophysics) Energy sources. Nucleosynthesis Neutrino fluxes Stellar interiors Solar and stellar oscillations. White dwarf structure [but neutron stars, etc., see 58] [Studies primarily of stellar evolution, abundances, see 57] [General nuclear physics, cross sections, see 148] [Pulsars, neutron stars, black holes, see 58]

53. Stellar atmospheres, Stellar Envelopes, Mass Loss, Accretion. General texts and primarily theory [For observation, interpretation of spectra, classification, etc., see 116]

54. Interstellar medium and diffuse nebulae. General and theory. [Theory of interplanetary gas, see 75] [Primarily observational studies, see 125]

56. Origin and evolution of solar and planetary systems (Cosmogony of solar systems) [Abundances of elements, see 57]

57. Origin and evolution of stars and stellar systems, Abundances. (Cosmogony of Stellar systems). Star formation Initial mass function. Stellar evolution Formation and evolution of galaxies Abundances of elements in stars and Universe

58. Astrophysics of Compact Objects (High energy astrophysics) General texts Neutron stars, Pulsars. Black holes Accretion disks. Gamma Ray bursts. Astrophysical jets. [Observational UV-X-gamma Ray astronomy, see 65-67] [Quasars, see 132] [Active galaxies, see 131] [Big Bang cosmology, see 137] [Background radiation, see 131]

59. Relativistic astrophysics, Gravitation theory [General relativity, gravitational radiation, see 45] [Big Bang cosmology, see 137] [Background radiation, see 138]


[Note: Group VI is used only for books which are non-object specific i.e. broad general text only. For studies of astronomical objects, see the relevant subject, e.g. Radio galaxies, see Galaxies 129; for X-ray binaries see 118, etc.]

61. Radio Astronomy. General texts. History of Radio Astronomy. Catalogues of Radio Sources. [See Michael Penston Room] [Radio telescopes, antennae, etc., see 23] [For solar radio astronomy, see Sun 76; radio galaxies, see galaxies 131, etc.]

62. Infrared Astronomy. General texts. Sub-millimetre and millimeter waves. Catalogues of IR sources. [See Michael Penston Room] Infra Red Astronomical Satellite, (IRAS) catalogues and results. [Infrared detectors, see 19] [Space research techniques, see 24]

64. Space Research. General texts. Exploration of the solar system. [Studies of Moon only, see 97; Jupiter, 101; etc.] [Space instrumentation, telescopes, see 24] [Observational UV-X-ray astronomy, see 65]

65. Ultraviolet and X-ray astronomy. General texts. UV and X-ray sources. X-ray background. Catalogues of sources. International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) catalogues and results. [UV fluxes of stars, see also 112(VII)] [Solar X-UV, see 76; Binary stars as X-ray sources, see 118; etc.] [Space research techniques, see 24]

67. Cosmic Rays. [Neutrino flux from stellar cores, see also 52] [Gravitational radiation, theory and experiment, see 45]

68. Gamma-Ray Gamma-ray background. [Neutrino astronomy, see 52]


[Solar interior, theory, energy sources, oscillations, see 52] [Solar results from IGY, IQSY, etc., see also 90]

70. General on the Sun. General. Historical. [Solar system general texts including Sun, see 95]

71. Solar Parameters. Parallax. Transits of Venus. Mass, radius. [Solar constant, and radiation, see 76]

72. Photosphere and Spots, Solar Activity. Granulation. Spots. [Spectra, see 73] Magnetic fields of spots and photosphere. Sunspot cycles and statistics.

73. Solar Spectrum Fraunhofer, U.V. etc, Lines. Atlases, measures, identifications (including telluric lines). Intensity and interpretation. Line shifts. [Abundance of elements of solar system, see 57]

74. Solar Atmosphere. Chromosphere. Flares. Prominences.

75. Corona and Solar Wind. Interplanetary plasma, heliosphere. [See also zodiacal light, interplanetary particles, 108]

76. Electromagnetic and Corpuscular Radiation. UV and X-rays. [line spectra, see 73] Visual continuum, solar constant. Radio radiation. Corpuscular radiation. Solar cosmic rays, relation to general cosmic rays. [Neutrino flux, see 52]

78. Solar Eclipses. General texts on the calculation of solar and lunar eclipses and occultations. Expeditions. Results.

79. Solar-terrestrial Relations. [IGY, etc., see 90]


85. Geography, terrestrial maps and atlases. Geology. [Figure of Earth, geodetic astronomy and surveying, see 35] [Motion of Earth, precession, nutation, see 32] [Map projections, see 35]

86. General Geophysics. Physics and chemistry of the Earth. [but for abundance of elements, see 57] Geomagnetism, rock magnetism. Continental drift. Tides. [Figure of Earth, arc of meridian, gravity, pendulum, geodesy, see 35]

87. The Lower Atmosphere. General texts on atmosphere and meteorological physics. Meteorology and compilations of meteorological data. Climatology and weather maps. Chemical composition, atmospheric tides, scale height, etc. Noctilucent clouds. [Optical effects of atmosphere, see 88] [Telluric absorption lines, see 73] [Upper atmosphere and ionosphere, see 89]

88. Refraction, Scintillation and Extinction. Meteorological optics. Tables of refraction.

89. Outer Atmosphere. Ionosphere and radiation belts. Magnetosphere. Aurorae. Spectrum of night sky, airglow. [See also solar-terrestrial relations, 79]

90. International Years. Polar Years (IPY) Geophysical Years (IGY) Quiet Sun Years (IQSY)


(Physical studies: for tables of positions, celestial mechanics, etc., see 38 to 43)

91. The Solar System. General texts. Planetary physics Planetary atmospheres and planetary geology. [Dynamics and masses, etc., see 40] [Origin and evolution of system, see 56] [Sun, see 70 -79]

92. Mercury [Transits over Sun, see 71]

93. Venus. [Transits over Sun, see 71]

94.The Moon. Atlases. Physical studies. Lunar exploration, geology. Lunar eclipses. Lunar planetary occultations. [Calculation of eclipses and occulations, see 78] [Earth-Moon system, dynamical lunar theory, see 43] [Earth and Geophysics, see 85 et seq.]

95. Mars, Mars Satellites.

97. Minor planets (Asteroids) [Used for solar parallax, see 71]

98. Jupiter, Jupiter Satellites.

99. Saturn, Saturn Satellites.

100. Uranus.

101. Neptune.

102. Pluto.


104. Comets. General texts on comets, meteors and relations between them. Origin, structure, atmosphere, dynamics. [Orbit theory and perturbations only, see 41]

105. Comets (Individual objects)

106. Meteors and Meteor Streams. Fireballs.

107. Meteorites. Micrometeorites, tektites. Meteorite craters. Structure of meteorites. [Abundance of elements in solar system, see also 57] [Solar wind, see 75]

108. Interplanetary matter. General texts. Zodiacal light (dust cloud) Gegenschein. (counter glow) Interplanetary magnetic field. [Corona, solar wind and heliosphere, see 75]

109. Planets around other stars.


(see also subject group V for general and theoretical astrophysics)

110. General textbooks on stars. General texts on stellar astronomy. Historical. History and description of constellations. Star names and their meanings. Descriptions of the sky, amateurs’ guide to the heavens, etc. Descriptive compilations of celestial objects. [General astrophysics, see 48]

112. Star Catalogues. [For textbooks on measurements of star positions, comparison of catalogues, etc., see 31]. Kapteyn's plan of selected areas. Books relating to them. Carte du Ciel, catalogues, charts, reference stars for. Reports of conferences and committees: Carte du Ciel. Position - identification and positional durchmusterung. Compilation catalogues. Cross-indexes BD-HD etc. Collected data on Bright Stars, Nearby Stars, etc. Position - precision, fundamental catalogues, zone and meridian observations. [All catalogues before 1845, see 112(X)] Binaries. Collections of visual observations. Spectroscopic, visual and eclipsing binaries catalogues. Collections of interferometric observations. Variable stars. Parallax, proper motion and radial velocity. Photometric, magnitudes, colour and spectra. Star clusters; mixed catalogues of star clusters and nebulae. [But for modern catalogues of nebulae only, see 125] [For modern catalogues of galaxies only, see 129] Early positional catalogues, epoch before 1845.

113. Star Atlases. General atlases. Photographic atlases of the sky. Collections of photographs of Milky Way fields, etc. Computer-readable catalogues.

114. Distance and motion. Parallax (including spectroscopic parallax). Proper motion. Radial velocity. [Catalogues, see 112(VI)]

115. Magnitudes and colours. Colours by wide-band techniques. Standard magnitudes. [Catalogues, see 112(VII)]

116. Stellar Spectra and Stellar Atmospheres. Line spectra. Spectral classification. Continuum, spectrophotometry, gradients. Observed line strengths and derived abundances. [See note below subject 117]

117. Stellar parameters, Types and Populations of Stars. Luminosity, mass, radius. Mass-luminosity relation. H-R diagram in general. Textbooks on types of stars, e.g.; High luminosity stars, Be stars, red giant stars, brown dwarf, white dwarf, degenerate stars. [But pulsars, see 58; infrared stars, see 62] [Magnetic, spectrum and all other variables, see 120] (N.B.; Subjects 116 and 117 are primarily observational study of stars, and its immediate interpretation. For stellar atmosphere theory, curve of growth, radiative transfer, internal constitution, models, etc., see subjects 48 to 57, and use those subjects for general texts embracing theory and observation.)

118. Binaries and Multiple Stars. General on multiple stars. Theory of orbits, reduction methods, hierachical systems. Spectroscopic and eclipsing binaries. Binary X-ray sources. Active close binaries. Visual binaries, Eclipsing binaries. Companions of small mass. [Catalogues and collections of visual and interferometric observations, see 112(IV)]

120. Variable Stars. General books on variable stars. Intrinsic variables, cepheids, etc. Magnetic and spectrum variables. Classification of all variables. Spotted stars, rotational variation. Pulsating variables i.e.R.R. Lyrae variables. [Catalogues, see 112(V)] [Eclipsing binary stars and cataclysmic (eruptive) variables, see 118 and 112(IV)] [Pulsars, see 58] [Theory of cepheids, pulsation, etc., see 52]

121. Novae.

122. Supernovae. Supernovae remnants. [Other non-stable stars, see 120] [Pulsars, see 58]

123. Star Clusters. Stellar associations. Open and globular clusters. [Catalogues, see 112(VIII)]

125. Interstellar matter. Circumstellar matter, ejecta. Planetary nebulae. HII regions, emission nebulae Diffuse and reflection nebulae. Molecular clouds. Interstellar extinction and scattering. Polarisation of starlight. [Primarily observation; for general and theoretical studies, see 54] [Supernovae remnants, see 122] [21 cm HI, structure of The Galaxy, see 126]

126. The Structure of The Galaxy. Stellar statistics; populations and distributions. Structure, dimensions, rotation of system. Milky Way - descriptions and brightness. Neutral Hydrogen, 21cm results, etc. [Primarily observational; for kinematics and dynamics, star streaming, velocity ellipsoids, etc., see 44] [Galaxy compared with other systems, see 130] [Plan of selected areas, see 112(O)]


129. Galaxies. General Works on galaxies. [Galaxy formation & evolution, see 57] [Dynamics of stellar systems, see 44]

130. Normal Galaxies (structure, evolution, pairs etc) Spiral Galaxies Irregular Galaxies Elliptical Galaxies (cD Galaxies, Ep Galaxies, Giant Elliptical Galaxies)

131. Active galaxies (Seyfert galaxies, BL Lacertae objects, radio galaxies) Peculiar galaxies (compact, dwarf, emission line galaxies, Ep Galaxies, Interacting galaxies, Ring galaxies) Blazars, AGNs.

132. Quasars.

133. Groups of Galaxies, Clusters of Galaxies, Superclusters & Voids, Intergalactic Matter.

134. The Galaxy compared with other systems. Distance scale Redshift Gravitational lensing

135. Magellanic Clouds


136. Cosmology. General works on the structure of the Universe. Origin, evolution.

137. Theoretical Relativistic cosmology, Models of the Universe The early universe Big Bang Steady State Theories Expanding universe theories End of the universe theories [Texts primarily on mathematical relativity and field theory, see 45]

138. Observational cosmology. Background radiation Space - time Dark Matter


(This subject group is for pure physics, not considering astronomy particularly. For primarily astronomical treatments see, for example, under 51).

140. General texts on Physics. History of physics. Compendia and encyclopaedia of physics Mathematical physics. Statistical physics (Statistical Mechanics) Quantum mechanics (Quantum theory) Classical Mechanics/Dynamical Mechanics Heat and Thermodynamics [Quantum mechanics of atomic structure, see 147] [General relativity, see 45] [Relativistic astrophysics, see 59] [Tables of general physical and chemical constants, see J.]

141. Electricity and Electronics, Magnetism Electromagnetism Electrodynamics Magnetohydrodynamics Electromagnetic waves and oscillations, propagation. X-rays, RF spectroscopy, etc Scattering and interaction of radiation and matter. [For specifically optical region, see 145, 146]

142. Solid State Physics. Surface phenomena Properties of materials Crystallography, metallurgy. Critical phenomena Electron states in solids. [Optical properties of solids, see 145]

143. Fluid/Liquid Mechanics, Gas Mechanics. Plasmas Hydrodynamics, turbulence, mixing. Fluid dynamics Rotating fluids (but for Figure of self-gravitating fluid bodies, see 40] Plasma physics and MHD, shock waves Ionization, discharges.

144. Sound and Related Vibrations.

145. Light. Optics. Geometrical and instrumental, physical. Quantum optics, coherences, masers and lasers. Light scattering by particles. Optical materials. [Spectroscopy, see 146] [Radiation detectors, image converters, photography, see 19, 20]

146. Spectroscopy. Instruments and methods. Fourier spectroscopy. Practical spectrum analysis. Tables of wavelengths, multiplets, f-values, etc. [For atomic theory, see 148]

147 Atomic and Molecular Physics. (include Quantum Physics and Chemical Physics) Textbooks on atomic, molecular, spectra. Molecular structure. Mass spectrometry in physics. Quantum mechanics of atomic structure. Atom-atom and molecule-molecule relationships.

148. Atomic and Nuclear Physics. Elementary particle physics. Nuclear structure and energy levels. Nuclear reactions and interactions. High energy physics Collisions. Neutrinos, quarks, leptons etc. [Cosmic rays in astronomy, see 67] [Thermonuclear reactions in stellar interiors, see 52]

149. Applied Physics Engineering Radio communication


(Primarily mathematical treatments; see also Physics subject 140 for mathematical physics, subject 142 for classical mechanics, etc.)

150. General Mathematics. History of mathematics. Compendia of pure and applied mathematics. Mathematics for scientists. Geometrics, topology, theory of numbers. [General relativity, see 45] [Numerical analysis and computing, see 156]

152. Algebra and Analysis. Differential and integral calculus. Series, differential equations, integral equations. Functions of real and complex variables.

156. Numerical Analysis and Computing. Methods of calculation. Interpolation and approximation Computers and programming. Nomography. Monte Carlo methods. [Data analysis, image processing, in astronomy see 26]

158. Probabilities, Statistical Mathematics, Information Theory. Cybernetics, communication theory. Theory of errors and combination of observations. Theory of signal and noise Neural networks [Practical techniques, image processing see 26] [Statistical tables, see 159]

159. Mathematical Tables. Standard tables of functions. Collections of formulae. Interpolation tables. Statistical tables.


160. General

161. Computer Hardware. Peripheral devices. Computer performance evaluation.

162. Software. Application programs, Data Operating systems and language. [Data processing and computer science applied to astronomy see 26]

163. Systems Analysis and Design. Performance evaluation. Storage devices Local area networks

164. Communications, Retrieval and Databases. Internet, WWW Computer network resources Electronic mail

165. Computer Programming Programming languages


A stars 117. Aberration 32. Absorption, interstellar, 125. Abundances of elements, 57. Accretion discs, general, 58. Active binary stars, 118. Active galaxies, 131. Adaptive optics 14. Ages of stars, galaxies, 57. Airglow 89. Alien life 7. Almanacs, I. Amateur observing, 8. Aperture synthesis, radio, 23. Apparent places of stars 9. Archaeoastronomy, 5. Archives, catalogues of, 3. Artificial satellites, orbits, 41. Asteroids, 97. Asteroseismology, 52. Astrobiology 7. Astrolabe, a prisme, 17. Astrometry, 31. Astronomical instruments, 15. Astronomical Societies, members, 4. Astronomical tables, data, 4. Astrophysics, General, 48. Atlases, sky, 113. Atlases, General A. Aurorae, 89. Automatic measuring machines 20. Azimuth & Altitude tables, 37.

B stars 117. Background radiation 138. Besselian quantities, 37. Bibliography, D. Big Bang cosmology 137. Binary stars, 118. Binary X-ray sources, 118. Binoculars 17. Biographies, 3. BL Lac objects, 131. Black holes, 58. Blazars, 131. Bright stars, catalogues, 112(II).  Brown Dwarfs, 117.

Calendar, 34. Carbon stars, 117. Carte du ciel, 112 (I). Cataclysmic variables, 118. Celestial mechanics, 40. Cepheids, 52, 120. Cepheids, theory 52. Chaos, general theory, 137. Charge-coupled devices, 19. Chromosphere, 74. Chronology, calendar, dating 34. Circle dividing, 17. Circumstellar matter 125. Climate, history of, 87. Clocks, 21. Close binaries, 118. Clusters of galaxies, 133. Collapsed objects, 58. Collected works of Scientists 3. Colloquia 1. Colour - magnitude diagrams 117. Comets, 104. Computers in astronomy, 27. Computers - general 60. Conferences, 1. Constellations, 110. Coordinate systems, 31. Coriolis force 32. Corona, 75. Cosmic microwave background, 138. Cosmic rays, 67. Cosmic strings 136. Cosmogony, solar system, 56. Cosmogony, stars and galaxies, 57. Cosmology, 136. Crab Nebula, 122. Curve of growth, 17.

Dark matter in universe, 138. Data analysis, general maths. 158. Data analysis, handling, in astronomy, 26. Databases, online, &c., 26. Degenerate stars, 52, 117. Distance scale, Hubble, 134. Double stars, 118. Dwarf novae, 122. Dynamical astronomy, 40.

Early-type stars, 117. Earth, atmosphere, 87. Earth, dynamical, rotation 32, 35. Earth, physical, 85 et seq. Earth-Moon system, dynamics, 43. Eclipse expeditions 78. Eclipses, 78. Eclipsing binaries, 118. Element abundances, 57. Emission line stars, 117. Emission nebulae, 125. Ephemerides, 9. Evolution, of life, 7. Extinction, interstellar, 125. Extraterrestrial life, 7.

Fabry-Perot interferometer, 18. Festschrift, 1. Fibre-optic techniques 18. Flare stars, 120. Fundamental catalogues, 31, 112.

Galactic dynamics 44, 126. Galactic nuclei, 130. Galaxies, dynamics, theory, 44. Galaxies, formation and evolution, 57. Galaxies, physical, 129. Galaxy, The; dynamics, theory, 44. Galaxy, The; structure, physical 126. Gamma ray astronomy 68. Gamma ray bursts 58. General relativity, 45. Geodesy, 35. Geophysics, 86. Giant stars, 117. Globes 17. Globular clusters, 123. Globules, 125. Gould's Belt, 126. Gravimetry, 35. Gravitation, theories of, 45. Gravitational collapse, 59. Gravitational lensing, 134. Gravitational radiation, 45. Gravity, G, laboratory measure,

H-I clouds, 125, 126. H-II regions, 125. Halo stars, 117. Handbuch series, Heliosphere, 75. Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, 117. High energy astrophysics, 58. High luminosity stars, 117. Hipparcos mission 31. History of astronomy 5. H-R diagram, 117. Hubble constant, 134. Hubble Space Telescope, 24.

Image converters, 19. Image processing, 26. Infrared astronomy, 62. Infrared detectors, arrays, 19. Infrared stars, 62. Interferometry; long base-line, optical speckle, 14. Interferometry, radio, 23. Intergalactic matter 133. Internal constitution, stars, 52. International Astronomical Union, 1. International Geophysical Year, 90. Interplanetary material, 108. Interstellar medium 54, 125. Ionosphere, 89. Ionospheric scattering, 23. IRAS, 62. IUE, 65.

Jupiter, 98.

Late type stars, 117. Latitude, variation of, 32. Life in the Universe, 11. Life, extraterrestrial 7. Light pollution 16. Longitude, determination of, 35. Lunar distances, longitude, 35. Lunar theory, orbit, 43.

M stars, 117. Magellanic Clouds, 135. Magnetic fields in stars, 49. Magnetic variables, 120. Magnetohydrodynamics, 50, 143. Magnetosphere, 89. Map projections, 35. Mars, 95. Mathematical tables, 159. Mercury, 92. Messier's catalogue, 110, 112(VIII). Meteorites, 107. Meteorological optics, 88. Meteors, 106. Microwave background radiation, 138. Milky Way, 126. Millimeter astronomy, 62. Minor planets, 97. Missing mass problems, 140. Molecules, interstellar, 125. Moon, tables of place, 38. Moon, physical, 94.

Navigation, 35. N-body problem, 44. Nearby stars, 112 (II). Nebulae, catalogues, 125, 112(VIII). Nebulae, galactic, 54, 125. Neptune, 101. Neutrino astronomy, 67. Neutrino flux, Sun, 52. Neutron stars, 58. Novae, 121. Novae, dwarf, 121. Nuclear reactions, stars, 52. Nucleo-cosmochronology, 57. Nucleosynthesis 52. Nutation, 32.

OB stars, 117. OH masers, 125. Obliquity, ecliptic, 32. Observatories, descriptions of, 4. Observatories, design, 16. Occultations, lunar, 78. Opacity, 49. Orbit of comets, etc., 41. Orbit theory, satellites, 41.

Parallax, stars, 114. Peculiar galaxies, 131. Peculiar stars, 117. Perturbation theory, planets, 41. Photography, 20. Photosphere, stars, 53. Photosphere, Sun, 72. Planetaria, 4. Planetary atmospheres, 91. Planetary geology, 91. Planetary nebulae, 54, 125. Planets, individual, 96, 102. Planets, masses, 40. Planets, orbit theory 41. Planets, tables of position, 38. Plasma physics, 143. Plasmas, in astrophysics, 50. Plasmas, interplanetary, 75. Pluto, 102. Polar motion, 32. Precession of equinoxes, 32. Precession tables, 37. Principia, commentaries, 40. Prominences, 74. Proper motions, 114. Pulsars, 58. Pulsating stars, theory, 52.

Quasars 132. Quantum mechanics 140.

RR Lyrae stars, 120. Radial velocities, stars, 114. Radiation belts, 89. Radiation detectors, 19. Radiative transfer, 51. Radio astronomy, general, 61. Radio galaxies 131. Radio source catalogues, 61. Radio stars, 117. Radio telescopes, 23. Redshifts, 134. Reference Frame, 31. Refraction, 88. Refracation tables, 88. Relativity, 45. Relativity in celestial mechanics 45. Relativistic astrophysics, 59. Relativistic cosmology, 137. Rotation of the Earth 32

Saturn, 99. Scattering of radiation 51. Scintillation, 88. Selected areas, 112(0). SETI 7. Site testing, 16. Solar 70 - 79. Solar interior, theory, 52. Solar oscillations, 52. Solar system, dynamics, 40. Solar system, formation, 56. Solar-terrestrial relations, 79. Space Programmes 28. Space Research, general, 64. Space Research, techniques, 24. Space stations 28. Space telescopes, 24. Space-time, 138. Speckle Interferometry, 15. Spectra: see under object Spectral classification, 116. Spectrographs, 18. Spectroscopic binaries, 120. Spectrum variables, 120. Spherical astronomy, 30. Spherical trigonometry, 150. Spiral structure, 126. Star atlases, 113. Star catalogues, 112. Star clusters, dynamics, 44. Star clusters, physical, 123. Star formation, 57. Star names, 110. Stars, radio 117. Stars, red giant, Be, etc., 117. Stellar atmospheres, 53, 116. Stellar distances, 114. Stellar dynamics, 44. Stellar evolution, 57. Stellar interiors, 52. Stellar oscillations, 52. Stellar parameters, mass, etc., 117. Stellar statistics, 126. Stellar systems, dynamics, 44. Stellar winds, 125. Sub-millimetre astronomy, 62. Sun, interior, theory, 52. Sun, observational, 70 et seq. Sundials, 21. Supernovae, 122. Supernovae remnants, 122. Symbiotic stars, 117. Symposia, 1.

T Tauri stars 120. Telescopes, optical, 16. Telescopes, radio, 23. Three body problem, 44. Time measurement, 21, 32. Transit circles, 16. Turbulence, interstellar, 54. Turbulence, stars, 51

U Gem stars, 120. UBV photometry, 115. Ultraviolet astronomy, 65. Universe, structure, 136. Uranus, 100.

Variable stars, cataclysmic, 118. Variable stars, eclipsing, 118. Variable stars, intrinsic, 120 Venus, 93. Venus, transits of, 71.

White dwarfs, 52, 117. Wolf-Rayet stars, 117

X-ray astronomy, 65. X-ray background, 65. X-ray binaries, 118. XUV detectors 24.

Zodiacal light 108.