Astrophysics: Stars fight back
Nature 516, 7529 (2014). doi:10.1038/516044a
Authors: Philip F. Hopkins
Galaxies contain fewer stars than predicted. The discovery of a massive galactic outflow of molecular gas in a compact galaxy, which forms stars 100 times faster than the Milky Way, may help to explain why. See Letter p.68
Stellar feedback as the origin of an extended molecular outflow in a starburst galaxy
Nature 516, 7529 (2014). doi:10.1038/nature14012
Authors: J. E. Geach, R. C. Hickox, A. M. Diamond-Stanic, M. Krips, G. H. Rudnick, C. A. Tremonti, P. H. Sell, A. L. Coil & J. Moustakas
Recent observations have revealed that starburst galaxies can drive molecular gas outflows through stellar radiation pressure. Molecular gas is the phase of the interstellar medium from which stars form, so these outflows curtail stellar mass growth in galaxies. Previously known outflows, however, involve small fractions of the total molecular gas content and have typical scales of less than a kiloparsec. In at least some cases, input from active galactic nuclei is dynamically important, so pure stellar feedback (the momentum return into the interstellar medium) has been considered incapable of rapidly terminating star formation on galactic scales. Molecular gas has been detected outside the galactic plane of the archetypal starburst galaxy M82 (refs 4 and 5), but so far there has been no evidence that starbursts can propel substantial quantities of cold molecular gas to the same galactocentric radius (about 10 kiloparsecs) as the warmer gas that has been traced by metal ion absorbers in the circumgalactic medium. Here we report observations of molecular gas in a compact (effective radius 100 parsecs) massive starburst galaxy at redshift 0.7, which is known to drive a fast outflow of ionized gas. We find that 35 per cent of the total molecular gas extends approximately 10 kiloparsecs, and one-third of this extended gas has a velocity of up to 1,000 kilometres per second. The kinetic energy associated with this high-velocity component is consistent with the momentum flux available from stellar radiation pressure. This demonstrates that nuclear bursts of star formation are capable of ejecting large amounts of cold gas from the central regions of galaxies, thereby strongly affecting their evolution by truncating star formation and redistributing matter.
Astronomy: Cosmic triangles and black-hole masses
Nature 515, 7528 (2014). doi:10.1038/515498a
Authors: Martin Elvis
A geometric measurement of the distance to a nearby galaxy implies a larger mass for its central black hole than previously calculated, and a consequent increase for most other masses of such black holes. See Letter p.528
A dust-parallax distance of 19 megaparsecs to the supermassive black hole in NGC 4151
Nature 515, 7528 (2014). doi:10.1038/nature13914
Authors: Sebastian F. Hönig, Darach Watson, Makoto Kishimoto & Jens Hjorth
The active galaxy NGC 4151 has a crucial role as one of only two active galactic nuclei for which black hole mass measurements based on emission line reverberation mapping can be calibrated against other dynamical techniques. Unfortunately, effective calibration requires accurate knowledge of the distance to NGC 4151, which is not at present available. Recently reported distances range from 4 to 29 megaparsecs. Strong peculiar motions make a redshift-based distance very uncertain, and the geometry of the galaxy and its nucleus prohibit accurate measurements using other techniques. Here we report a dust-parallax distance to NGC 4151 of megaparsecs. The measurement is based on an adaptation of a geometric method that uses the emission line regions of active galaxies. Because these regions are too small to be imaged with present technology, we use instead the ratio of the physical and angular sizes of the more extended hot-dust emission as determined from time delays and infrared interferometry. This distance leads to an approximately 1.4-fold increase in the dynamical black hole mass, implying a corresponding correction to emission line reverberation masses of black holes if they are calibrated against the two objects with additional dynamical masses.