Tidal evolution of the Moon from a high-obliquity, high-angular-momentum Earth
Nature 539, 7629 (2016). doi:10.1038/nature19846
Authors: Matija Ćuk, Douglas P. Hamilton, Simon J. Lock & Sarah T. Stewart
In the giant-impact hypothesis for lunar origin, the Moon accreted from an equatorial circum-terrestrial disk; however, the current lunar orbital inclination of five degrees requires a subsequent dynamical process that is still unclear. In addition, the giant-impact theory has been challenged by the Moon’s unexpectedly Earth-like isotopic composition. Here we show that tidal dissipation due to lunar obliquity was an important effect during the Moon’s tidal evolution, and the lunar inclination in the past must have been very large, defying theoretical explanations. We present a tidal evolution model starting with the Moon in an equatorial orbit around an initially fast-spinning, high-obliquity Earth, which is a probable outcome of giant impacts. Using numerical modelling, we show that the solar perturbations on the Moon’s orbit naturally induce a large lunar inclination and remove angular momentum from the Earth–Moon system. Our tidal evolution model supports recent high-angular-momentum, giant-impact scenarios to explain the Moon’s isotopic composition and provides a new pathway to reach Earth’s climatically favourable low obliquity.
ESA’s Gaia mission is surveying stars in our Galaxy and local galactic neighbourhood in order to build the most precise 3D map of the Milky Way and answer questions about its structure, origin and evolution.
Launched in 2013, Gaia has already generated its first catalogue of more than a billion stars – the largest all-sky survey of celestial objects to date.
To achieve its scientific aims, the spacecraft operates in an ultra-high-precision pointing mode, and to enable the flight control team to monitor spacecraft performance, Gaia regularly reports to the ground information about its current attitude and the stars that have been observed.
These engineering data have been accumulated over 18 months and combined to create a ‘map’ of the observed star densities, from which a beautiful and ghostly ‘virtual image’ of our magnificent Milky Way galaxy can be discerned, showing the attendant globular clusters and Magellanic clouds.
A ghostly image of our Milky Way galaxy derived from spacecraft orientation data Credit: ESA
The intensity scale of this map represents star density derived from the engineering data representing star density. Where there are more stars, as in the Galactic centre, the map is brighter; where there are fewer, the map is darker. The map includes brightness data corresponding to several million stars.
More information on Gaia operations
Editor’s note: On 21 November, at 16:00 CET, the Gaia mission team will host a live ‘Ask Me Anything’ chat. Details will be posted via ESA social media channels later.
Technology Development: The Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) is the highest-ranked recommendation for a large space mission in the NRC 2010 decadal survey, New Worlds, New Horizons (NWNH) in Astronomy and Astrophysics. The WFIRST coronagraph instrument (CGI) will be the first high-contrast stellar coronagraph in space. It will enable WFIRST to respond to the goals of NWNH by directly imaging and spectrally characterizing giant exoplanets similar to Neptune and Jupiter, and possibly even super-Earths (extrasolar planets with a mass higher than Earth’s but lower than our Solar System’s ice giants, Neptune and Uranus), around nearby stars. The WFIRST CGI includes both a Shaped Pupil Coronagraph (SPC) and a Hybrid Lyot Coronagraph (HLC). All three of WFIRST’s CGI technology milestones for 2015 were passed successfully.Measured milestone contrasts for the HLC (middle) and SPC (left) in a vacuum testbed in2015, where the milestone target contrast of 10-8 average in the dark hole (the annularand wedge-shaped regions, respectively) was achieved for both coronagraphs, as plannedand on schedule.
First, the HLC demonstrated a raw contrast (speckle/star intensity ratio) of 10-8, using a 10% bandwidth filter in visible light (550 nm), in a static environment. Second, the SPC achieved the same milestone under the same conditions. For both the HLC and SPC, the figure above shows excellent average contrast (blue-green) over most of the field of view, and slight turn-up (red) at the inner and outer radii, as expected. The third milestone was accomplished when the Low Order Wavefront Sensing and Control (LOWFS) subsystem achieved its goal of providing sensing of pointing jitter and control at the 0.4 milli-arc-second rootmean- square (RMS) level, which will keep a target star sufficiently centered on the coronagraph star-blocking mask, when the WFIRST telescope experiences pointing drift and jitter.Pupil-plane reflective mask for the SPC, 24-mm diameter, black silicon on mirror (left).Image-plane reflective mask for the back-up technology Phase Induced AmplitudeApodization Complex Mask Coronagraph (PIAA-CMC) coronagraph, 155-μm diameter,raised elements on silicon (center). Image-plane transmitting mask for HLC, 100-μmdiameter, raised dielectric and metal on glass (right). All masks were fabricated in theMicro-Devices Lab (MDL) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL).
Impact: With achievement of these milestones, NASA is a major step closer to being confident that WFIRST will be able to directly image planets and dust disks around nearby stars. There are at least 15 radial-velocity exoplanets that both coronagraphs will be able to image in their dark hole regions, in a few hours integration time each. The WFIRST coronagraph will enable scientists to see these exoplanets directly for the first time, and the images will be in their true colors (using some of the other color filters in the CGI). A simulation is shown in the figure on page 9, where the blocked star is hidden inside the annulus; a planet is seen at about 5 o’clock, and the star is assumed to have no zodiacal dust around it (left) or a strong dust cloud (right).
Status and Future Plans: WFIRST successfully completed its Mission Concept Review in December 2015, in preparation for its Phase-A start the following January (which was also successful). The CGI is baselined as a technology demonstration instrument on WFIRST; it does not drive mission requirements beyond those needed for the Wide Field Instrument. However, with one year of allocated observing time out of a six-year mission, NASA expects that it will achieve breakthrough science, and will demonstrate key technology elements for follow-up missions, the next of which could be aimed at finding habitable Earth-like planets around nearby stars.Simulation of expected image with CGI on WFIRST of a planet (at about 5 o’clock) with nozodiacal dust cloud (left) and with a zodiacal dust cloud (right).
Sponsoring Organization: This coronagraph technology is jointly funded by the Astrophysics Division’s SAT program, in partnership with the NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD). NASA JPL currently leads the coronagraph development effort, and key contributions of the coronagraph team have been provided by three former SAT PIs: Jeremy Kasdin at Princeton University, John Trauger at NASA JPL, and Olivier Guyon at the University of Arizona.Master Image: