Institute of Astronomy

Astronomy News

Astrophysics: Elemental abundances across cosmic time

9 December 2016 - 10:05am

Astrophysics: Elemental abundances across cosmic time

Nature 540, 7632 (2016). doi:10.1038/540205a

Authors: Chiaki Kobayashi

The chemical composition of a massive galaxy in the early Universe reveals an extremely short period of star formation. This result could challenge our ideas about the evolution of galaxies and of the Universe itself. See Letter p.248

Galaxy’s rapid growth spurt may have spawned 3000 suns per year

9 December 2016 - 9:37am

A distant, ancient galaxy far more massive than our own formed all its stars in less than half a billion years

Dark matter that talks to itself could explain galaxy mystery

9 December 2016 - 9:36am

A team of astronomers think a new explanation for dark matter can best explain its mysterious effects on the speed of stars within galaxies

Cassini Beams Back First Images from New Orbit

9 December 2016 - 9:35am

NASA's Cassini spacecraft has sent to Earth its first views of Saturn’s atmosphere since beginning the latest phase of its mission.

News Article Type: Homepage ArticlesPublished: Wednesday, December 7, 2016 - 11:01

Dark Matter May be Smoother than Expected

9 December 2016 - 9:33am
Analysis of a giant new galaxy survey, made with ESO’s VLT Survey Telescope in Chile, suggests that dark matter may be less dense and more smoothly distributed throughout space than previously thought. An international team used data from the Kilo Degree Survey (KiDS) to study how the light from about 15 million distant galaxies was affected by the gravitational influence of matter on the largest scales in the Universe. The results appear to be in disagreement with earlier results from the Planck satellite.

Cosmic dust grains found on city rooftops for the first time

7 December 2016 - 9:10am

Sifting through muck trapped in roof gutters in Paris, Oslo and Berlin yielded 500 tiny particles from the birth of the solar system 4.6 billion years ago

New evidence for a warmer and wetter early Mars

7 December 2016 - 9:09am

A recent study from ESA's Mars Express and NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) provides new evidence for a warm young Mars that hosted water across a geologically long timescale, rather than in short episodic bursts – something that has important consequences for habitability and the possibility of past life on the planet.

Europe presses ahead with Mars rover

5 December 2016 - 9:33am

European research ministers meeting in Lucerne, Switzerland, emphatically reaffirm their commitment to putting a robot rover on Mars in 2021.

Tangled threads weave through cosmic oddity [heic1621]

2 December 2016 - 9:08am

New observations from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope have revealed the intricate structure of the galaxy NGC 4696 in greater detail than ever before. The elliptical galaxy is a beautiful cosmic oddity with a bright core wrapped in system of dark, swirling, thread-like filaments.

Reorientation of Sputnik Planitia implies a subsurface ocean on Pluto

1 December 2016 - 9:29am

Reorientation of Sputnik Planitia implies a subsurface ocean on Pluto

Nature 540, 7631 (2016). doi:10.1038/nature20148

Authors: F. Nimmo, D. P. Hamilton, W. B. McKinnon, P. M. Schenk, R. P. Binzel, C. J. Bierson, R. A. Beyer, J. M. Moore, S. A. Stern, H. A. Weaver, C. B. Olkin, L. A. Young & K. E. Smith

The deep nitrogen-covered basin on Pluto, informally named Sputnik Planitia, is located very close to the longitude of Pluto’s tidal axis and may be an impact feature, by analogy with other large basins in the Solar System. Reorientation of Sputnik Planitia arising from tidal and rotational torques can explain the basin’s present-day location, but requires the feature to be a positive gravity anomaly, despite its negative topography. Here we argue that if Sputnik Planitia did indeed form as a result of an impact and if Pluto possesses a subsurface ocean, the required positive gravity anomaly would naturally result because of shell thinning and ocean uplift, followed by later modest nitrogen deposition. Without a subsurface ocean, a positive gravity anomaly requires an implausibly thick nitrogen layer (exceeding 40 kilometres). To prolong the lifetime of such a subsurface ocean to the present day and to maintain ocean uplift, a rigid, conductive water-ice shell is required. Because nitrogen deposition is latitude-dependent, nitrogen loading and reorientation may have exhibited complex feedbacks.

Observed glacier and volatile distribution on Pluto from atmosphere–topography processes

1 December 2016 - 9:28am

Observed glacier and volatile distribution on Pluto from atmosphere–topography processes

Nature 540, 7631 (2016). doi:10.1038/nature19337

Authors: Tanguy Bertrand & François Forget

Pluto has a variety of surface frosts and landforms as well as a complex atmosphere. There is ongoing geological activity related to the massive Sputnik Planitia glacier, mostly made of nitrogen (N2) ice mixed with solid carbon monoxide and methane, covering the 4-kilometre-deep, 1,000-kilometre-wide basin of Sputnik Planitia near the anti-Charon point. The glacier has been suggested to arise from a source region connected to the deep interior, or from a sink collecting the volatiles released planetwide. Thin deposits of N2 frost, however, were also detected at mid-northern latitudes and methane ice was observed to cover most of Pluto except for the darker, frost-free equatorial regions. Here we report numerical simulations of the evolution of N2, methane and carbon monoxide on Pluto over thousands of years. The model predicts N2 ice accumulation in the deepest low-latitude basin and the threefold increase in atmospheric pressure that has been observed to occur since 1988. This points to atmospheric–topographic processes as the origin of Sputnik Planitia’s N2 glacier. The same simulations also reproduce the observed quantities of volatiles in the atmosphere and show frosts of methane, and sometimes N2, that seasonally cover the mid- and high latitudes, explaining the bright northern polar cap reported in the 1990s and the observed ice distribution in 2015. The model also predicts that most of these seasonal frosts should disappear in the next decade.

Astronomy: A black hole changes its feeding habits

1 December 2016 - 9:28am

Astronomy: A black hole changes its feeding habits

Nature 540, 7631 (2016). doi:10.1038/nature20480

Authors: Stephanie LaMassa

In the 1980s, the gas surrounding a black hole in a nearby galaxy began to emit much more radiation than before. This change has unexpectedly reversed in the past five years, questioning our understanding of these extreme phenomena.

Planetary science: Pluto's telltale heart

1 December 2016 - 9:28am

Planetary science: Pluto's telltale heart

Nature 540, 7631 (2016). doi:10.1038/540042a

Authors: Amy C. Barr

Studies of a large frost-filled basin on Pluto show that this feature altered the dwarf planet's spin axis, driving tectonic activity on its surface, and hint at the presence of a subsurface ocean. See Letters p.86, p.90, p.94 & p.97

The Mystery of Coronal Heating

1 December 2016 - 9:24am
Video Length: 3:35

Observations by NASA's IRIS spacecraft suggest that "heat bombs" are going off in the sun's outer atmosphere, helping to explain why the solar corona is so mysteriously hot.

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Downloadable Link: The Mystery of Coronal Heating - mp4YouTubeVimeo

LIGO turns back on to hunt for more gravitational waves

1 December 2016 - 9:23am

The premier gravitational wave observatory just turned back on for another six months - and it's expected to catch twice as many black holes as last time

Quantum particles seen distorting light from a neutron star

1 December 2016 - 9:23am

Astronomers have at last observed polarisation of light by virtual particles in a neutron star's magnetic field, a long-expected quantum effect

Saturn mission approaches tour finale

1 December 2016 - 9:21am

The Cassini spacecraft is beginning the end phases of its mission to Saturn that will eventually see it disposed of in the giant planet's atmosphere.

First Signs of Weird Quantum Property of Empty Space?

30 November 2016 - 11:24am
By studying the light emitted from an extraordinarily dense and strongly magnetised neutron star using ESO’s Very Large Telescope, astronomers may have found the first observational indications of a strange quantum effect, first predicted in the 1930s. The polarisation of the observed light suggests that the empty space around the neutron star is subject to a quantum effect known as vacuum birefringence.

Proxima Centauri really does orbit its two bright neighbours

30 November 2016 - 10:59am

After a century of speculation, we now know the little planet-bearing star revolves around Alpha Centauri A and B every 550,000 years

Mars probe returns first pictures

30 November 2016 - 10:58am

The new satellite that Europe and Russia put in orbit at Mars on 19 October has sent back its first images of the planet.