These nightly zero-points are predicated on the fact that the data has been processed through the WFS pipeline (see pipeline processing for more details). For ease of cross-calibration we are providing photometry based in the Landolt (1992, AJ 104, 340) and SDSS systems, see the section on colour conversions for more details. There is evidence for colour term non-linearity in the SDSS-Landolt cross-calibration which has been ignored for the moment.
This table presents our best estimate of the nightly averaged zero-points for each filter at airmass=1.0, assuming the extinction for the night is nominal (see extinction). The steps involved in going from the processed observations of standard fields to the zero-points are:
The zero-point assumes default extinction and unit airmass, ie. for other situations
ZP --> ZP - [sec(z)-1]*extinct + extinct_default - extinct
Average extinction coefficients for La Palma of U = 0.46, B = 0.22, V = 0.12, R = 0.08, I = 0.04, Z = 0.05, g' = 0.19, r' = 0.09, i' = 0.05 have been assumed for the photometric nights used to derive the zero-points and colour terms. For details of nightly individual extinction measurements and more information regarding the La Palma extinction curve see the Carlsberg Meridian Telescope extinction measurements or the Mercator Telescope extinction measurements.
The effective gain (e-/ADU) of the system after pipeline processing was 3.12 pre-August 1999 and appeared to be 2.6: September 1999 through December 1999 post-mscred taking over the flatfield gain renormalisation. However, the gain and non-linearity of CCD#1 was changed sometime between the December 1999 and March 2000 runs, such that the average gain (ie. effectively what mscred uses) is now currently 2.75: , so to convert the zero-points to photons/s add 1.24, 1.05:, 1.09: magnitudes respectively.
The following keyword information can now be used to generate more accurate magnitudes:
APCORPK = ' 2.812' / Stellar aperture correction - peak height APCOR1 = ' 0.635' / Stellar aperture correction - core1 flux APCOR = ' 0.114' / Stellar aperture correction - core flux APCOR2 = ' 0.028' / Stellar aperture correction - core2 flux APCOR3 = ' 0.000' / Stellar aperture correction - core3 flux APCOR4 = ' 0.000' / Stellar aperture correction - core4 flux Aperture corrections in magnitudes needed to correct the assorted aperture- like measures produced in the catalogues onto the equivalent of a total flux stellar system. These constitute the components of a curve-of-growth analysis contained within the catalogues with pixel "radii": peak pixel, 1/2 x rcore, rcore, sqrt(2) x rcore, 2 x rcore, 2 sqrt(2) x rcore to be used in the sense that corrected_photometry = 2.5*log10(flux) + apcor They also work well as a first order seeing correction for faint galaxies. The remaining information necessary for photometric calibration is included in the following keywords:- PERCORR = -0.006 / Sky calibration correction (mags) this is a correction based on the median dark sky recorded in science frames compared to the median for all the CCDs and as such is an ancillary correction to the gain correction derived from the flatfield (usually twilight flats) data. This correction is to be used in the same sense as before in that corrected_photometry = 2.5*log10(flux) + apcor + percorr MAGZPT = 22.10 / Photometric ZP (mags) for default extinction Nightly-derived CCD zero-point in the sense of what magnitude object gives a total (corrected) flux of 1 count/s. These ZPs are appropriate for generating magnitudes in the natural CCD+filter system based on Vega, see http://www.ast.cam.ac.uk/~wfcsur/technical/photom/ for more details on colour equations etc.. The nightly ZPs have been derived from a robust average of all photometric standards observed on any particular night, corrected for airmass but assuming the default extinction values listed at the preceding web address. For other airmass or other values of the extinction use ZP --> ZP - [sec(z)-1]*extinct + extinct_default-extinct You can then make use of any of the assorted flux estimators to produce magnitudes via Mag = ZP - 2.5*log10(flux/exptime) - apcor - percorr Note that for the so-called total and isophotal flux options it is not possible to have a single-valued aperture correction MAGZRR = 0.15 / Photometric ZP error (mags) error in the zero point. If good photometric night this error will be at the level of a few percent. Values of 0.05 and above indicate correspondingly non-photometric night and worse. This photometric information supercedes earlier release information.