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- Primordial black holes in the Dark Ages: Observational prospects for future 21cm surveys
(KJM & D.H. Wesley)
arXiv:0805.1531; submitted to Physical Review D; publication delayed due primarily to co-author's withdrawal from academia
Summary: If primordial black holes were evaporating during the cosmological Dark Ages when the universe was dominated by neutral hydrogen gas, the effects of the Hawking radiation on the neutral hydrogen may be detectable in future high-redshift 21cm radio interferometry surveys. We present the signal that would be seen in the 21cm fluctuation power spectrum and discuss the instrumental requirements and challenges for such an observation. We show that the high-redshift 21cm fluctuation power spectrum has the potential to place strong limits on evaporating primordial black holes and other exotic energy sources in the Dark Ages.
- Detecting the redshifted 21cm forest during reionization
(KJM & J.S.B. Wyithe)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 425, 2988 (2012) [arXiv:1101.5431]
Summary: The epoch of reionization was the transition between a neutral intergalactic medium (IGM) during the cosmic Dark Ages and the mostly ionized intergalactic medium of the present day. Understanding this crucial period of cosmic time would give us great insight into the nature of the first sources of light in the Universe and how cosmic structure evolved. A key observational tool in this effort is the 21cm line of neutral hydrogen, which can be studied at high redshift using a number of large-scale radio interferometry observatories currently under construction around the world. In this paper, we discuss how the 21cm forest -- the absorption signature of the pre-reionization IGM against high-redshift radio sources -- can allow us to study the thermal history of the IGM in an unprecedented way. We also discuss the observational challenges of this measurement, including the difficulty of finding radio-loud background sources at sufficiently high redshift.
- Axions, Inflation
and the Anthropic Principle
Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics 1107, 021 (2011)
Summary: The QCD axion is a hypothetical particle that plays an important role in particle physics (as a solution to a major problem in the theory of the strong force, quantum chromodynamics), and that has been proposed as a candidate for the dark matter that makes up more than 80% of the matter in the Universe. Axions also occur naturally in string theory, but finding theories in which they are produced at the proper scale to explain dark matter has proved challenging. In this paper, I show that if axions are produced before inflation (as would be expected in string theory), either the axion properties or the inflationary model must be highly tuned in order to evade observational constraints, and the attempts by some authors to use the anthropic principle to explain this disparity are ultimately insufficient.
problems with multiple axion-like fields
(KJM & P.J. Steinhardt)
Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics 1105, 001 (2011)
Summary: In string theory, axion-like fields are commonplace, occuring as the result of compactification from higher dimensions. It has often been hypothesized that one of these axion-like fields could be the QCD axion, responsible for solving the strong-CP problem in quantum chromodynamics and possibly accounting for dark matter. However, as we discuss in this work, the tuning required for a generic string theory axion to exist in the context of inflation without violating observational bounds is extreme: in general, the level of tuning is greater than the tuning in QCD that motivated the axion hypothesis in the first place. We show that this tuning is exponentially more extreme if multiple axion-like fields are considered, and that the introduction of anthropic arguments do not alleviate the problem.
- Effect of primordial
black holes on the cosmic microwave background and cosmological parameter
(M. Ricotti, J.P. Ostriker & KJM)
The Astrophysical Journal 680, 829 (2008)
Summary: Massive, non-evaporating primordial black holes can ionize and
heat the intergalactic medium in the epoch before the formation of stars
and galaxies by accreting baryonic matter and producing X-rays. We show
that failing to account for a non-standard recombination history can
lead to a
misestimation of cosmological parameters. We also discuss the effect of
primordial black hole baryon accretion on the primordial molecular
hydrogen abundance, which may affect the rate of formation of the
first stars and galaxies.
cosmic string loops with gravitational lensing surveys
(KJM, D.H. Wesley & L.J. King)
Physical Review D 76, 123515 (2007)
Summary: Current constraints on the existence of cosmic strings mainly
rely on an understanding of their emission of gravitational radiation.
different approach, we start with an estimate of the gravitational lensing
effect of a typical cosmic string loop against a background radio
source and use this to predict the constraints that might be reached with
extant and future radio surveys.
of structure seeded by primordial black holes
(KJM, J.P. Ostriker & M. Ricotti)
The Astrophysical Journal 665, 1277 (2007)
Summary: We discuss the constraints on massive (non-evaporating)
holes (PBHs) as a component of dark matter. We also explore the
possibilities for PBHs to contribute to the early growth of supermassive
black holes or to become the intermediate-mass black holes whose existence
may account for ultraluminous x-ray sources seen today.
Lyth bound revisited
(G.P. Efstathiou & KJM)
Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics 0505, 008 (2005)
Summary: The Lyth bound relates the tensor-scalar ratio to the variation
inflaton field over the course of inflation. We study a population of
inflationary models produced stochastically using the inflationary flow
equations and with a minimal set of assumptions to test this relationship
and comment on its implications for the future detection of a primordial
for 21-cm observations of neutral gas at high redshift (S.P. Oh &
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 346, 871 (2003)
Summary: One of the biggest challenges for observing the cosmological Dark
with redshifted 21cm radio observations will be overcoming a wide range of
foregrounds. We investigate the effects of foregrounds on spatial
tomography of neutral gas at high redshift and on observations of spectral
features along a pencil-beam slice.