Institute of Astronomy

Astronomy News

NASA’s Newest Mars Mission Spacecraft Enters Orbit around Red Planet

21 September 2014 - 5:00pm
NASA’s Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) spacecraft successfully entered Mars’ orbit at 10:24 p.m. EDT Sunday, Sept. 21, where it now will prepare to study the Red Planet’s upper atmosphere as never done before. MAVEN is the first spacecraft dedicated to exploring the tenuous upper atmosphere of Mars.

Milky Way map swirls with 219 million stars

19 September 2014 - 5:19pm
The most detailed map of our galaxy ever made reveals the incomprehensible majesty of our neighbourhood

Strangest star: 6 things we didn't know about the sun

18 September 2014 - 8:00pm
With its fiery rains, speedy magnetic flips and an atmosphere that defies the laws of physics – our home star is as weird as it gets (full text available to subscribers)

Astronomy Photographer of the Year 2014

18 September 2014 - 11:19am
Twinkling stars and swirling gases - winning visions of the night sky

Gaia discovers its first supernova

18 September 2014 - 11:16am

While scanning the sky to measure the positions and movements of stars in our Galaxy, Gaia has discovered its first stellar explosion in another galaxy far, far away.

This powerful event, now named Gaia14aaa, took place in a distant galaxy some 500 million light-years away, and was revealed via a sudden rise in the galaxy’s brightness between two Gaia observations separated by one month.

Gaia, which began its scientific work on 25 July, repeatedly scans the entire sky, so that each of the roughly one billion stars in the final catalogue will be examined an average of 70 times over the next five years.

“This kind of repeated survey comes in handy for studying the changeable nature of the sky,” comments Simon Hodgkin from the Institute of Astronomy in Cambridge, UK.

Many astronomical sources are variable: some exhibit a regular pattern, with a periodically rising and declining brightness, while others may undergo sudden and dramatic changes.

Light curve

“As Gaia goes back to each patch of the sky over and over, we have a chance to spot thousands of ‘guest stars’ on the celestial tapestry,” notes Dr Hodgkin. “These transient sources can be signposts to some of the most powerful phenomena in the Universe, like this supernova.”

Dr Hodgkin is part of Gaia’s Science Alert Team, which includes astronomers from the Universities of Cambridge, UK, and Warsaw, Poland, who are combing through the scans in search of unexpected changes.

It did not take long until they found the first ‘anomaly’ in the form of a sudden spike in the light coming from a distant galaxy, detected on 30 August. The same galaxy appeared much dimmer when Gaia first looked at it just a month before.

“We immediately thought it might be a supernova, but needed more clues to back up our claim,” explains Łukasz Wyrzykowski from the Warsaw University Astronomical Observatory, Poland.

Other powerful cosmic events may resemble a supernova in a distant galaxy, such as outbursts caused by the mass-devouring supermassive black hole at the galaxy centre.

Supernova Gaia14aaa and its host galaxy

However, in Gaia14aaa, the position of the bright spot of light was slightly offset from the galaxy’s core, suggesting that it was unlikely to be related to a central black hole.

So, the astronomers looked for more information in the light of this new source. Besides recording the position and brightness of stars and galaxies, Gaia also splits their light to create a spectrum. In fact, Gaia uses two prisms spanning red and blue wavelength regions to produce a low-resolution spectrum that allows astronomers to seek signatures of the various chemical elements present in the source of that light.

Read the full story on Gaia's first supernova discovery on the ESA Portal.

VIDEO: Astronomy Photographer of the Year 2014

18 September 2014 - 8:41am
Twinkling stars and swirling gases - winning visions of the night sky

Rainbow galaxies reveal why cosmos is full of spirals

17 September 2014 - 7:30pm
Psychedelic pictures of 30 galactic collisions show for the first time that merging galaxies often spawn disc-shaped offspring like our Milky Way

Hubble Helps Find Smallest Known Galaxy with a Supermassive Black Hole

17 September 2014 - 6:00pm

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Astronomers have found an unlikely object in an improbable place: a monster black hole lurking inside one of the tiniest galaxies known. The dwarf galaxy containing the black hole is the densest galaxy ever seen, cramming 140 million stars within a diameter of about 300 light-years (just 1/500th of our Milky Way galaxy's diameter). However, the black hole inside the galaxy is five times the mass of the black hole at the center of our Milky Way. This suggests that the dwarf galaxy may actually be the stripped remnant of a larger galaxy that was torn apart during a close encounter with a more massive galaxy. The finding implies that there are many other compact galaxies in the universe that contain supermassive black holes.

Big surprises can come in small packages - Hubble helps astronomers find smallest known galaxy with supermassive black hole [heic1419]

17 September 2014 - 6:00pm
Astronomers using the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope have found a monster lurking in a very unlikely place. New observations of the ultracompact dwarf galaxy M60-UCD1 have revealed a supermassive black hole at its heart, making this tiny galaxy the smallest ever found to host a supermassive black hole. This suggests that there may be many more supermassive black holes that we have missed, and tells us more about the formation of these incredibly dense galaxies. The results will be published in the journal Nature on 18 September 2014.

Hubble Helps Find Smallest Known Galaxy Containing a Supermassive Black Hole

17 September 2014 - 5:00pm
Astronomers using data from NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope and ground observation have found an unlikely object in an improbable place -- a monster black hole lurking inside one of the tiniest galaxies ever known.

Violent Origins of Disc Galaxies Probed by ALMA

17 September 2014 - 2:00am
For decades scientists have believed that galaxy mergers usually result in the formation of elliptical galaxies. Now, for the the first time, researchers using ALMA and a host of other radio telescopes have found direct evidence that merging galaxies can instead form disc galaxies, and that this outcome is in fact quite common. This surprising result could explain why there are so many spiral galaxies like the Milky Way in the Universe.

Highlights in the study of exoplanet atmospheres

17 September 2014 - 1:00am

Highlights in the study of exoplanet atmospheres

Nature 513, 7518 (2014). doi:10.1038/nature13782

Author: Adam S. Burrows

Exoplanets are now being discovered in profusion. To understand their character, however, we require spectral models and data. These elements of remote sensing can yield temperatures, compositions and even weather patterns, but only if significant improvements in both the parameter retrieval process and measurements are

Advances in exoplanet science from Kepler

17 September 2014 - 1:00am

Advances in exoplanet science from Kepler

Nature 513, 7518 (2014). doi:10.1038/nature13781

Authors: Jack J. Lissauer, Rebekah I. Dawson & Scott Tremaine

Numerous telescopes and techniques have been used to find and study extrasolar planets, but none has been more successful than NASA's Kepler space telescope. Kepler has discovered most of the known exoplanets, the smallest planets to orbit normal stars and the planets most likely to

A supermassive black hole in an ultra-compact dwarf galaxy

17 September 2014 - 1:00am

A supermassive black hole in an ultra-compact dwarf galaxy

Nature 513, 7518 (2014). doi:10.1038/nature13762

Authors: Anil C. Seth, Remco van den Bosch, Steffen Mieske, Holger Baumgardt, Mark den Brok, Jay Strader, Nadine Neumayer, Igor Chilingarian, Michael Hilker, Richard McDermid, Lee Spitler, Jean Brodie, Matthias J. Frank & Jonelle L. Walsh

Ultra-compact dwarf galaxies are among the densest stellar systems in the Universe. These systems have masses of up to 2 × 108 solar masses, but half-light radii of just 3–50 parsecs. Dynamical mass estimates show that many such dwarfs are more massive than expected from their luminosity. It remains unclear whether these high dynamical mass estimates arise because of the presence of supermassive black holes or result from a non-standard stellar initial mass function that causes the average stellar mass to be higher than expected. Here we report adaptive optics kinematic data of the ultra-compact dwarf galaxy M60-UCD1 that show a central velocity dispersion peak exceeding 100 kilometres per second and modest rotation. Dynamical modelling of these data reveals the presence of a supermassive black hole with a mass of 2.1 × 107 solar masses. This is 15 per cent of the object’s total mass. The high black hole mass and mass fraction suggest that M60-UCD1 is the stripped nucleus of a galaxy. Our analysis also shows that M60-UCD1’s stellar mass is consistent with its luminosity, implying a large population of previously unrecognized supermassive black holes in other ultra-compact dwarf galaxies.


17 September 2014 - 1:00am


Nature 513, 7518 (2014). doi:10.1038/513327a

Author: Leslie Sage

It is hard to imagine now, and the younger people in the field will not remember this, but there was a period when the search for exoplanets had rather a bad reputation, based on a number of high-profile claims that were subsequently disproved. Although there

Doppler spectroscopy as a path to the detection of Earth-like planets

17 September 2014 - 1:00am

Doppler spectroscopy as a path to the detection of Earth-like planets

Nature 513, 7518 (2014). doi:10.1038/nature13780

Authors: Michel Mayor, Christophe Lovis & Nuno C. Santos

Doppler spectroscopy was the first technique used to reveal the existence of extrasolar planetary systems hosted by solar-type stars. Radial-velocity surveys led to the detection of a rich population of super-Earths and Neptune-type planets. The numerous detected systems revealed a remarkable diversity. Combining Doppler measurements

The role of space telescopes in the characterization of transiting exoplanets

17 September 2014 - 1:00am

The role of space telescopes in the characterization of transiting exoplanets

Nature 513, 7518 (2014). doi:10.1038/nature13783

Author: Artie P. Hatzes

Characterization studies now have a dominant role in the field of exoplanets. Such studies include the measurement of an exoplanet's bulk density, its brightness temperature and the chemical composition of its atmosphere. The use of space telescopes has played a key part in the characterization

Instrumentation for the detection and characterization of exoplanets

17 September 2014 - 1:00am

Instrumentation for the detection and characterization of exoplanets

Nature 513, 7518 (2014). doi:10.1038/nature13784

Authors: Francesco Pepe, David Ehrenreich & Michael R. Meyer

In no other field of astrophysics has the impact of new instrumentation been as substantial as in the domain of exoplanets. Before 1995 our knowledge of exoplanets was mainly based on philosophical and theoretical considerations. The years that followed have been marked, instead, by surprising

Astrophysics: Giant black hole in a stripped galaxy

17 September 2014 - 1:00am

Astrophysics: Giant black hole in a stripped galaxy

Nature 513, 7518 (2014). doi:10.1038/513322a

Authors: Amy E. Reines

An oversized, supermassive black hole has been discovered at the centre of a densely packed conglomeration of stars. The finding suggests that the system is the stripped nucleus of a once-larger galaxy. See Letter p.398

NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory Finds Planet That Makes Star Act Deceptively Old

16 September 2014 - 5:00pm
A planet may be causing the star it orbits to act much older than it actually is, according to new data from NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory. This discovery shows how a massive planet can affect the behavior of its parent star.